Connection of the congenital heart disease with Diabetes and climate

Congenital Heart Defects (CHD) or congenital heart disease is the most common congenital diseases found. In fact, more advanced treatment, still not break the CHD as a major cause of death does not rub off on the baby. In comprehensive reviews of recently published in Birth Defects Research, or for Garg, MD, and Madhumita Basu, PhD, offers to see the impact of maternal diabetes, and the potential influence of gene-environment in the conditions for the development of the heart the fetus.

 "Many epidemiological studies have shown a strong correlation between maternal diabetes and increased risk of CHD in infants born to mothers exposed to the (diabetes), " said Dr. Garg, Director of the cardiovascular research center at The Research Institute at Nationwide The children's Hospital.

Connection of the congenital heart disease with Diabetes and climate

For example, diabetes type 1 and type 2 is associated with specific subtypes of CHD. Babies born from mothers with type 1 diabetes have a greater relationship with conotruncal malformations and septal atrioventricular septum. Those born of mothers with type 2 diabetes have the highest risk of malformation and heterotoksik outlet obstruction of left ventricle. Both types of diabetes also increases the risk of other types of CHD in the baby, including malformation of airway outlet Ventricular septal and right ventricular and atrial septum.

When gestational age fetuses exposed to maternal diabetes, also became an important thing to note. Diabetic mother before conception and during the first trimester is associated with fetal diabetic embriopati that affect the heart, major blood vessels, and nerve tube. When mothers developed diabetes during the second half of pregnancy, was associated with makrosomia the fetus, cardiomyopathy, as well as the increased incidence of perinatal complications and mortality.

Diabetes is a complex disease with abnormal homeostasis of various components in the metabolism, which in turn causes metabolic syndrome as a whole. Despite this complexity has determined to be a teratogen hyperglycemia in all forms of diabetes, but the process exactly hyperglycemia mother causes birth defects in infants is still unknown.

 "The underlying Molecular Mechanisms in which changes of maternal glucose levels for action to cause congenital heart abnormalities are actively being investigated in our laboratory and others, " said Dr. Basu, Assistant Professor of research in the lab at the center of the Garg Cardiovascular Research.

 "We suspect that the gene-environment interaction is associated with the specific epigenetik process disregulasi on fetal heart, " added Dr. Basu.

Climate change and CHD

New research in the Journal of the American Heart Association reveal the interconnectedness of soaring temperatures that are sourced from global climate change with an increase in the number of babies born with a congenital heart defect (CHD) in the United States.

 "Our findings underline the alarming impact of climate change on human health and highlights the need for improved preparedness for dealing with the anticipated increase in complex conditions that often require maintenance lifetime and follow-up,  "says study author Shao Lin, m.d., Ph. D., MPH, a professor at the School of public health at the University of Albany, New York.

 "Is important for the doctor to advise pregnant women and those who are planning to get pregnant about the importance of avoiding extreme heat, particularly the 3-8 of the week post conception--a critical period of pregnancy."

Previous studies have found a relationship between exposure to the heat of the mother and the risk of heart defects in children. Although the mechanism in detail yet too uncertain, but studies in animals indicate that heat can cause cell death of the fetus or interfere with some heat-sensitive protein plays an important role in the development of fetuses, the researchers said.

Estimates in the current research is based on a projection of the number of births between 2025 and 2035 in the United States and an increase in the anticipated exposure to heat the average mother in various regions as a result of global climate change.

In their analysis, the researchers used a climate change forecasts obtained from NASA and Goddard Institute for Space Studies. They increase the temporal and spatial resolution of forecast, simulate changes daily maximum based on geographic region, and then calculate the anticipated mother hot exposure per region for the spring and summer.

4 the characteristic marker of Postpartum depression

Four characteristics offer a way to predict depression in women, as well as the level of symptoms during the first year after childbirth.

Longitudinal studies looking at data collected between 2006 and 2011 women who gave birth at the academic medical center in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Women with postpartum depression disorders participated and completed the assessment of the severity of symptoms in 4-8 week (intake), 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months postpartum. A doctor interviewed the women about the severity of their symptoms of depression, medical and psychiatric history, functions, experience of obstetrics, and the status of the baby.

4 the characteristic marker of Postpartum depression

Scientists determine the score a woman based on four characteristics, using an algorithm predicts the trajectory computing depresinya, and gives the possibility of groups where women would be. Prediction of the study was 72.8 percent accurate.

The fourth characteristic is the number of children; Ability to function in public life, at work, and in relationships; Education level--can determine access to resources; and the level of depression in four to eight weeks pascapersalinan.

"At the moment a mother coming to visit six weeks pascapersalinan, we got a potentiality to predict the severity of depresinya over the next 12 months," said Sheehan Fisher, Assistant Professor of Psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Northwestern University Feinberg Medical School.

Identifying these factors in the early postpartum period will allow mothers to seek treatment early and increase their chances for a full recovery.

A mother with depression after childbirth can be in one of three pathways to depression: gradual remission (as time goes on he began to get better); partial improvement (at 12 months postpartum, she headed in a positive direction but continued to have symptoms); and severe chronic (symptoms began at the same level with the second floor, but deteriorated over time).

 "This is not just a question of ' Whether the mother was depressed? ' But, ' as far as what level depresinya? '  "Says Fisher, " If depresinya symptoms worsening over time, it should be a proactive treatment. "

Fisher hope these findings will lead to improved measures of care for mothers in the third pathway of depression. It means health care providers can customize the level of care for every woman.

Symptoms and treatment of postpartum

Mothers with postpartum depression usually have difficulty sleeping, feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt, difficult to overcome negative emotions, have an inability to focus or concentrate, and generally feel a lot of pressure emotional.

Pascapersalinan depression not only affect the mother but also can affect the function and health of her child negatively. This can affect the development of children's emotions and ability to regulate their own emotions and give a higher risk for anxiety and depression.

The longer a woman's depression is left untreated, the harder it is for him to get back on track, said Fisher. It may take a while to find the right medication and get access to the right provider.

 "It just undermines if the mother does not start treatment until the future, " says Fisher.

Treatment for women in different chronic group based on the individual. The doctor may ask for the help of the father or other family members to seek a high level of care such as intensive outpatient care for mothers.

Pain after childbirth

The pain of childbirth is also associated with postpartum depression. Summary of new research presented at the annual meeting of Anesthesiology, last year.

Previous research has shown the pain associated with childbirth may increase the risk of depression pascapersalinan, but has yet to determine which parts of the labor that may be the source of the problem. This is the first study that distinguishes the postpartum pains of labor pain/childbirth and identify it as a significant risk factor for postpartum depression.

BREAST MILK for infants with congenital heart disease

With a lower risk of complications with increased feeding results and growth, BREAST MILK is highly recommended as the best intake for infants with congenital heart disease (Congenital Heart Defects).

Jessica a. Davis of the UPMC children's Hospital of Pittsburgh and Diane l. Spatz PhD from the school of nursing of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, reviewing and analyzing six studies on the benefits of BREAST MILK and breastfeeding for infants with CHD.

They concluded,  "for the outstanding evidence of improved outcomes associated with the determination of a sick baby to BREAST FEED, BREAST MILK should be considered a medical intervention for infants with CHD."

Congenital heart disease is the most common categories of birth defects, was diagnosed in an estimated 1 in 1,000 newborn babies and infants every year. But while the benefits of BREAST MILK for premature babies healthy and well documented, there is limited data regarding its role in improving the outcome for infants with CHD. The researchers examine the evidence about the benefits of BREAST MILK on the main outcomes for infants with CHD.

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious complication where there is damage to the intestines. Based on research that shows that exclusive BREAST MILK diet can reduce the incidence of NEC in preterm infants, the same recommendations apply for infants with CHD.

Chylothorax is a rare complication in chest surgery which is characterized by abnormal drainage of lymph fluid around the lungs, with the risk of severe adverse outcomes. Research has shown that reading the fat from the BREAST MILK itself allows the baby to continue to receive diet BREAST MILK during treatment for chylothorax.

Infants with CHD risk also having difficulty eating led to growth and weight gain are not adequate. Research has shown that BREAST MILK diet can increase the weight in infants with heart disease. But because of other pressing concerns at this critical babies, breastfeeding or alternative approaches to provide BREAST MILK is often not seen as a high priority.

 "Breast milk is important to protect infants with CHD from infection, reducing the risk of NEC, promote tolerance and protect the baby's brain development/upgrade, " wrote Davis and Dr. Spatz. Based on this evidence, they believe that health professionals have an ethical duty to help families make informed decisions about feeding to their babies with CHD.

The author outlines a 10-step model Dr. Spatz to promote and protect breastfeeding and breast feeding for infants with CHD. The recommendations include measures to ensure the initiation and maintenance of supply of BREAST MILK, both with breastfeeding or pumping. If necessary, the donated pasteurized BREAST MILK can serve as a liaison to the BREAST MILK itself.

Other measures include ensuring contact skin-to-skin as soon as possible after birth and support the ability of mothers to breastfeed and monitor your intake and growth of BREAST MILK to their babies.

 "Breast milk is the intervention rescue soul for infants with CHD and health professionals must prioritise help families to make decisions the feeding that informed and ensure that mothers of infants with CHD can reach the purpose of breastfeeding their personal,  "said Dr. Spatz.

CHD itself can be detected before birth through ultrasound or neonatal during the physical examination. Screening oksimetri the pulse of a simple non-invasive in the newborn can identify infants with CHD or with noncardiac causes of hipoksemia before returning to the House.

In 2011, the Screening Panel recommended the U.S. changed to include screening of CHD, although individual States determine how to implement these procedures. In 2016, 48 countries have policies or recommendations for screening CHD, although not mandatory.

As a component of routine screening for newborns, screening CHD does not require special approval, but parents must be notified that the screening must be made accompanied by explanations that early screening before getting out of the hospital meant to ensure that infants with CHD is identified and treated. Early and appropriate intervention is associated with adult survival rate of over 82%.

Countries that have implemented mandatory screening for CHD, able to reduce significantly the level of infant mortality due to CHD with a decrease of 33% to 50%.

Social Media Does Not Cause Depression

Longitudinal data are collected from teens and young adults, showed no evidence of the use of social media is causing the symptoms of depression. The conclusions derived from the study published Clinical Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science. However, the findings thus indicate the opposite: depression symptoms are relatively higher, allows the use of social media are more active, especially among adolescents.

This research contrasts with recent claims that social media use by teens can cause depression, claims based on a study that examines the relationship between average use of social media and the welfare of the average measured in one point in time.

Social Media Does Not Cause Depression

 "You should follow the same person from time to time to draw the conclusion that the use of social media predicts greater symptoms of depression, " says lead author Taylor Heffer from Brock University.  "Using two large longitudinal sample, we can test that assumption empirically."

Starting in 2017, Heffer and co-author, conducted a survey of grade 6, 7, and 8 in Ontario, Canada, once a year for two years. Researchers also conduct annual survey participants graduate, started in first year University over the span of 6 years.

To measure symptoms of depression, researchers using the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for young adults and age-appropriate version of the same scale for adolescents. All participants answered two questions about the average daily hours spent on social media-one measure of use on weekdays and more measured use of weekends. Participants also answered questions about the time their other monitors such as watching TV and offline activities such as doing homework and working out.

Heffer and his colleagues analyzed the data separately for each age group and gender.

The results showed that the use of social media does not produce symptoms of depression later in life in teenagers or college students graduate.

 "This finding contrasts with the idea that people who use a lot of social media become more depressed from time to time. Instead, the teenage girls who feel sad can turn to social media to try and make themselves feel better,  "said Heffer.

Overall, research indicates that fears surrounding the use of social media and its impact on mental health may be too early.

 "When parents read media headlines like ' Facebook Depression, ' there is an inherent assumption that social media use leads to depression. Policy makers also were recently debating ways to overcome the effects of the use of social media on mental health,  "said Heffer.

Evaluate whether worries about the impact of social media deserves or does not require prospective longitudinal study that allows researchers to examine whether the use of social media to predict the symptoms of depression (not vice versa), while control of other potential influences. As noted by Heffer and his colleague, individual differences in personality, motivation, and the current welfare tend to play an important role in the relationship between media use and welfare in the future.

 "There may be a wide group of people that are using social media for different reasons, " Heffer explains.  "For example, there may be a group of people who use social media to create social comparison or change it when they feel sad, while other groups of people may use it for more positive reasons, such as keeping contact with friends. "

Examine the role played by these differences will help clarify the ways in which social media to interact with the mental health, with the same implications for parents, policy makers, and other health professionals.

Opiate effects against decision-making

A bad decision making is often associated with drug addicts and pathological gambler, but what about the people who excessively use social media? New research from Michigan State University shows the relationship between the use of social media and risky decision-making.

These findings are published in the Journal of Behavioral Addictions-Research-first to examine the relationship between the use of social media and a risky decision making ability.

The discovery of Soft Sensors to Monitor Cardiac Cells

For the first time, researchers have demonstrated an electronic device to monitor carefully the heartbeat without affecting the form and function. A collaboration between the University of Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo, and Japan's RIKEN produces functional heart cell samples with sensor nanomesh touching software directly to the network. This tool can help study the cells, organs, and other medications. It also paved the way for the medical devices ' embedded ' in the future.

Inside each one of us beats a heart that sustain life. Unfortunately, this organ is not always perfect and sometimes wrong. One way or another at the heart of research are fundamentally important for all of us. So when Sunghoon Lee, a researcher in the Group of Professor Takao Someya of the University of Tokyo, came up with the idea for the ultrasoft electronic sensors can monitor the functioning of the cells, the team uses these sensors to study cells the heart, or kardiomiosit as they beat.

The discovery of Soft Sensors to Monitor Cardiac Cells

 "When researchers studied kardiomiosit in action, they membiakkannya in the petri dish and attaching a rigid sensor probe. This hinders the natural tendency of the cells to move when the sample beats, so that the observations do not reflect reality,  "said Lee.

 "Nanomesh Sensors we liberate researchers to study the kardiomiosit and other cell culture in a way that is more faithful to how they were in nature. The key is to use the sensor in conjunction with the flexible substrate, or the base, so that the cells can grow,  "he added.

For this research, collaborator of the Tokyo Women's Medical University supply kardiomiosit healthy stem cells that come from human beings. Base for it is a very soft material called fibrin gel. Lee put the sensor on top of the nanomesh cell culture in a complex process, which involves the removal and addition of liquid medium at the right time. It is important to direct the nanomesh sensor properly.

Nanomesh devices to monitor dynamically pulsating kardiomiosit are distinguished from hiPSC. a, Optical Image device nanomesh. Scale bar, 2 mm. b, Scanning electron microscope image of nanomeshes. Scale bar, 200 μ m. c a schematic, illustration of the nanomesh. Schematic illustration d, kardiomiosit on rigid material (left) and kardiomiosit inherent nanomesh on soft material (right).

 "Is hard to mesh fine Sensor is placed perfectly. This reflects the subtle touch needed to make it in the first place,  "continued Lee, " polyurethane Strands underlying the entire sensor nets 10 times thinner than a human hair. It takes a lot of practice and push my patience to its limit, but finally I made some prototype work.  "

To make the first sensor, a process called electro-spinning polyurethane ultrafine string mengekstrusi into flat sheet, similar to the workings of several 3D printers. The sheet like Spider is then coated parylene, a type of plastic, to strengthen it. Parylene on certain parts of the mesh is removed with a dry etching process with stencils. The gold is then applied to this area to create a sensor probe and cable communications. Parylene additional isolating probe so that their signals do not interfere with each other.

With three probes, sensors read voltage there at three locations. The reading seem familiar to anyone who watched the drama of the hospital because basically it was the kardiogram. Thanks to some of the probe, investigators can see the signal propagation, resulting from and trigger the cell to beat. These signals known as action or the potential field and is very important when assessing drug effects on the heart.

 "Sample medications need to be up to the sample cell and dense sensor will distribute drugs with bad or prevent it from reaching the sample at all. So the nature of the sensor porous nanomesh deliberate and the driving force behind the whole idea,  "said Lee.  "Does it to research drugs, heart monitors or to reduce animal testing, I can't wait to see this device is manufactured and used in the field. I am still getting a strong feeling when I saw a close-up image of the gold thread. "

Towards The Discovery Of A Cure For Cancer

The World Health Agency, the WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, stated there were 18.1 million new cancer cases and 9.6 million deaths that occurred in this year. The growing cancer survivor makes WHO predict cancer will be the number one cause of death in the world.

The latest report released by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, it analyzes data from 185 countries in the world with a deeper look at 36 types of cancer. From that data, found one in five men and one in six women potentially suffered cancer in their lives. As many as one in eight of the 11 men and one woman will die of cancer.

Towards The Discovery Of A Cure For Cancer

The report concluded, adding the number of cancer patients go hand in hand with the world's population is also growing. An aging population make the risk of cancer increases as you get older.

Lung cancer, colorectal, stomach, liver, and breast is a type of cancer most frequently suffered. The report noted that lung cancer is the deadliest cancer by 1.8 million or 18.4 percent of the total deaths in 2018.

Data from the Ministry of health, Indonesia is on the order of 8 in Southeast Asia, while in Asia the disease incidence by number 23 cancer 136.2/100,000 population.

Indonesia's highest incidence figures for male is lung cancer that is amounting to 19.4 per 100,000 population with an average of 10.9 per 100,000 population mortality, followed by cancer of the liver of 12.4 per 100,000 inhabitants with an average of 7.6 deaths per 100,000 population. While the numbers of Genesis for women that breast cancer is highest i.e. amounting to 42.1 per 100,000 inhabitants with an average death of 17 per 100,000 inhabitants followed cervical cancer amounted to 23.4 per 100,000 inhabitants with an average death 13.9 per 100,000 population.

Based on Riskesdas data, the prevalence of tumors/cancer in Indonesia shows that there is an increase of 1.4 per 1000 inhabitants in the year 2013 be 1.79 per 1000 inhabitants in the year 2018. Cancer prevalence is highest in the provinces of Yogyakarta 4.86 per 1000 inhabitants, attended West Sumatra 2.47 79 per 1000 population and Gorontalo 2.44 per 1000 inhabitants.


Currently, this type of cancer is the most common treatment is chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery of tumors, and – in the case of prostate cancer and breast cancer-hormone therapy.

However, other types of treatment started massive done to address a series of issues that will typically faced by health care providers and patients. Including aggressive treatment accompanied by unwanted side effects, tumor recurrence after treatment, surgery, or both, and the formidable against aggressive cancer treatments that are widely used.

Therapy, for example, whether a single therapy or a combination of some of the other treatments, tend to have side effects for patients.

Some breakthrough research on any cancer is now capable gives us renewed hope that better therapies and prevention strategies will soon follow.

Boost the immune system

One type of therapy that has attracted a lot of attention recently is immunotherapy. Therapy that aims to strengthen our own body immune against foreign matter and harmful cells: our immune system response against the spread of the cancerous tumor.

But many types of cancer cells is very dangerous because they have a way of  "cheat's" immune system – either ignore it completely or quite the welcome him.

However, thanks to experiments in vitro and in vivo, the researchers are now studying how they can be "disable " system protector of cancer cells. A study published last year in Nature Immunology found that macrophages, or white blood cells, which are usually assigned to  "consuming " cellular debris and objects " " the dangerous other foreigners failed to wipe out cancer cells super-agressive .

Viral therapy and ' vaccines ' innovative

A surprising weapon in the war against cancer can be a therapeutic virus, as revealed by a team from the United Kingdom earlier this year. They successfully use reovirus to attack brain cancer cells without affecting healthy cells.

 "This is the first time shown that therapeutic viruses are able to pass through the blood-brain barrier, " is clearly the author's research, which opens the possibility of [that] kind of immunotherapy can be used to treat more people with brain cancer aggressive.

Early explanations of Hallucinations in macular degeneration

New research from the University of Queensland have shown for the first time that visual hallucinations in people with macular degeneration (MD), associated with an increase in abnormal activity in the visual cortex of the brain.

Macular degeneration is a disease of the eye retina which causes progressive deterioration of the central area of the retina--leads to loss of vision in the center of the field of vision — while the peripheral vision is usually not affected. In Australia, MD is the leading cause of blindness in people over the age of 40 years.

Early explanations of Hallucinations in macular degeneration

Surprisingly, many people experiencing MD continues to develop a condition known as Charles Bonnet Syndrome. A condition in which they experience hallucinations when brain adjust to vision loss are significant. Hallucinations can be a simple geometric pattern or a much more complex scenes involving animals, people, and places.

Why do some people with MD experienced hallucinations while others are not, it is still unclear, but there are suggestions that the level of activity of the visual area of the brain can play a role in a significant way.

To resolve it, Professor Jason Mattingley and his team from the Queensland Brain Institute and school of Psychology University stimulates peripheral visual field of research participants and found that individuals with hallucinations, it shows significantly increased activity in a specific part of their visual system.

Criteria for the diagnosis of macular degeneration Charles Bonnet Syndrome

"We're using electroencephalography (EEG) to measure the electrical activity of the brain in three groups: a group with macular degeneration and hallucinations of Charles Bonnet, groups with macular degeneration and without hallucinations, and a control group of people a healthy old visually,  "Dr David light Painter, author of the research results in

 "Their duty is to see the letters that appear at the edges of the screen, and we discuss flash Chess Board on the frequency in the display. We found that the boards of these oscillations generate unique visual area in the brain that we can measure using mathematical techniques. The main findings are when we encourage activity in the visual system of people with macular degeneration who reported experiencing hallucinations, there is a very large visual response compared with participants who have vision loss that the same but do not have a hallucination. "

Dr. Painter notes that while people with macular degeneration who experience visual hallucinations indicate hyperexcitability, the translation of these into a hallucinatory hyperexcitability is not automatic and depends on external trigger still unknown.

 "During testing, none of our participants who experience hallucinations, so not because of an increase in stimulation of the brain produce hallucinations it is another factor, " Dr Painter.

 "Sometimes people experience hallucinations when they are in a period of sensory stimulation is low, such as in low light or period of inactivity, but for others it can be triggered by things such as riding in a car or a television-it varies for each individual. "

 "What our results is that the brain of the respondents who have experienced hallucinations were more upbeat, but it remains unclear how the stimulus is then translated into a hallucination-it is a question for future research."

These findings can help reduce misdiagnosis hallucinations in people with MD.

 "When people get older and they begin to experience this unusual experience, they are often worried that there is something wrong with them, such as dementia or something similar, so they tend not to report hallucinations due to fearing they may be treated differently,  "said Dr. Painter.

 "Doctors sometimes do not recognize his illness, and therefore can only provide an inappropriate remedy to people, but our method could potentially allow us to detect those who may be suffering from Charles Bonnet Syndrome with see their brain stimulation in response to flashing stimulus. "

 "Once people realize it's not a disorder of the brain, they tend to have a neutral or even positive experience of their hallucinations. Unlike the hallucinations in people with schizophrenia, for example, individuals with Charles Bonnet Syndrome are aware that they are not real hallucinations. "